Thursday, June 4, 2020
Nowadays, there are many different tools to help investor to analysis the stock market, but it can divided into two types which is fundamental analysis and technical analysis. Fundamental analysis is base on the corporation fundamental information, such as financial statement, balance sheet, cash flow statement, prospective of the industry and so on. Technical analysis is relying on many technical skills, for example, Bar chart, moving average line, rsi, macd etc. In this report, we will analysis the usefulness and benefits of financial reporting to share purchasing or sale decisions by using the methods of efficiency market hypotheses (EMH), behavioral finance and financial information Capital market efficiency and efficiency market hypotheses (EMH) Capital market efficiency can investigate the efficiency and performance of capital markets. When news information available about particular company, if the news is bad, then the prices will drop, and if the news is good the prices will rise, capital market efficiency will revaluate its and fully reflect on the share prices reasonably and speedily. In this theory, the shares do not overvalue or undervalue, hence, nobody can make a profitable return or outperform the overall market by buying a under price shares or beat the market except by chance. There are three types of efficiency: Operational efficiency This is refers to the outlay, velocity and dependability of transactions in securities on the exchange. It is desirable that the market carries out its operations to minimize the cost as possible, dependably and quickly which can decrease the risk of the transaction, it also identified as an internally efficient market. Second is Allocation efficiency This is refers to the optimal allocation of resource, a company or society has a scarcity of resource which means theresource is not unlimited, therefore, allocational efficiency is designed for better allocation of resource to maximize the benefits. Pricing efficiency The participants can expect to gain a risk adjusted return from an investment as prices move suddenly and in an impartial approach to any news in the pricing efficient market. The efficiency market hypotheses (EMH) can only apply to type of pricing efficiency. According to EMH nobody can make a profit more than the fair value or outperform than the market, expect by chance, because past and present information is instantly indicated in the current prices, just new information can change the prices but new information is unpredictable, hence changes of future prices are unpredictable. There are three levels of efficiency which is created by Fama(1970): Weak-form efficiency Current prices of shares is fully reflect all past price movement, thus it can not be used to predict the future situation. Semi-strong form efficiency It not only contain past price movement in the share prices but also include all public information such as rights issues, dividend announcements, resignation of directors and so on. This type of EMH implies that no benefit on analysis the public information that has been announce since the information is assimilated into share prices already, therefore investor can not gain a return higher than normal. Strong-form efficiency The present share price is reflected all information in the market including private and public held. In the strong-from efficiency market even is insider such as director who will know more than normal investor. They also do not have advantage to generate a profit that exceeding the normal returns. Behavioral finance There are many attacks on the EMH by finance experts using the human behavioral literature and the knowledge of market. Since 1980s, there has a movement tend to absorb more behavioral science into finance. Behavioral finance is a theory that explains the effect of psychology on the behavior of the investor such as illogical or irrational decisions and the respond of succeeding effect with different situation on individual and the whole market. Behavioral finance merges with two subject which are economic and psychology, it is disguised the characteristics of market investors and the information structure systematically influence individuals investment decisions as well as market outcomes. The two major types of behavioral finance are limits to arbitrage (when markets will be inefficient) and the cognitive psychology (how people think). The most popular cognitive biases in finance are that investor unwillingness to realize losses. Investors tend to not confess that they have been m ade an error and evade selling the securities at losses. There are some of the most common cognitive biases: mental accounting, representativeness, overconfidence, framing, conservatism and disposition effect. Usefulness of financial information Financial information has a lot of purpose. For examples, participants can use financial information which can help them to realize the overall financial position of the corporation and determine whether or not to invest in the corporation, furthermore, it can assist them to recognize whether they can receive a positive return on their investment. When a company after positive earnings news is issued the prices will likely to continue upward for weeks or months. Also, prices will keep rising after a stock split is released. In opposite, when negative news is announced the prices will continue decrease. There is some most popular aspect when concerning the financial information: Depreciation It can report the true value of items that after depreciate over time such as equipment, buildings and cars. It is the ways that record the residual value of the assets. Current Ratio It is a very popular tool of financial analysis because they provide indication and sign of underlyi ng conditions. The ratio can help the investors to discover the situation and tendency that difficult to detect by examining individual components. For example: acid-test ratio, inventory turnover, accounts receivable turnover, total asset turnover and so on. Working Capital Working Capital is current assets less current liabilities. A company needs enough working capital to settle the current debts, to obtain benefit of cash discounts, and to hold adequate inventories. If company is running lower working capitals which indicate that the company is not likely to meet the current liabilities or to continue operating. When assessing a companys working capital, investors can not just look at the amount of current assets less current liabilities, also have to look at the ratio. The current ratio is defined as current assets divide by current liabilities. If the ratio is less then one, it implies that the company has not enough cash to pay its current liabilities which is risky for investors. The Income Statement It provides vast data for who interested in the financial health of the corporation. It presents how much profits are made after minus all expenses. If the expenses are too high, then it will get a low profit margin. In order to get a net income, the following expenses are deducted from revenue: selling and administrative expenses, taxes, cost of goods and other income and expenses. Taking HSCB annual reports of 2008, 2009 and 2010 as an example, when the corporation announced annual report on March at 2009, 2010 and 2011, it was recorded a profits which is 66milliona, 59 millions and 131millions respectively, after the announcement the stock continue to raise a period of time. Some research finds that financial information is useful in predicting future stock returns. Ou and Penman (1989) and Holthausen and Larcker (1992) demonstrate that financial information come from public financial statements can be use to successfully predict st ock returns for the coming period. In general, financial analysts are less willing to follow poor performing, low- volume, and small firms (Hayes 1998; McNichols and OBrien 1997), Ou and Penman (1989) show that an array of financial ratios created from historical financial statements can accurately predict future changes in earnings, while Holthausen and Larcker (1992) show that a similar statistical model could be used to successfully predict future excess returns directly. Conclusion To conclude this demonstrate by quoting Statman, Meir (1999) People are rational in standard finance; they are normal in behavioral finance. Rational people care about utilitarian characteristics, but not value-expressive ones, are never confused by cognitive errors, have perfect self-control, are always averse to risk, and are never averse to regret. Normal people do not obediently follow that pattern. Standard finance asks for too much when it asks for market efficiency in the rational sense, and investment professionals ask for too much when they insist that the primary contribution of behavioral finance is its potential help in beating the market. Accepting market efficiency in the sense of beating the markets and rejecting it in the sense of rationality would allow finance researchers to ask questions about the roles of investment professionals that go beyond the role of beating the market. Investment professionals belong to many groups, and we need to understand the benefits, both utilitarian and value expressive, they provide. EMH required all investors are rational, logical and unbiased, but in the real world it is difficult to do that, because human has felling, they can not always be rational, logical and unbiased, also there are many investors that lack of knowledge, they just follow the others which is similar to crowd psychology. Refer to the question form Mr. Right, EMH state that the share prices has already contain all the public information, in fact is that, we can see the example above, when the public information is issued, the share price will fluctuation influence by the news information for a period of time, therefore, investors to study the report and account of companies is very important. Furthermore, the behavioral finance is more suitable in the real words. Words Count: 1574
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The internet is an amazing place. You can discover so many things there. People have become famous before because of the internet. Great singers, dancers, and crazy stunts put on the internet led to them being discovered. Some fame has lasted. Some didnÃ¢â¬â¢t last very long at all. Some people became famous for something embarrassing. This is AceÃ¢â¬â¢s story of how he became famous for fifteen minutes. Ace is anxious about tomorrow. It was the day Ace was going to propose to his girlfriend of two years. He had everything planned. From the moment they woke up to the end of the night was planned strategically. Ace was super nervous. He double checked everything. Ace couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t wait. He loved Cassidy so much he would do anything for her. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦What Cassidy didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know was that Kade, AceÃ¢â¬â¢s best friend was right behind them to record the proposal. Ace led Cassidy to the exact place that they met, right by the jumping spiders . He grabbed CassidyÃ¢â¬â¢s hands and got down on his knee. Cassidy looked shocked and nervous. Ã¢â¬Å"Cassidy, I know we met in a unique way, but IÃ¢â¬â¢m just glad that I met you. I feel like this was fate playing a hand in our lives. That day we met, Kade forced me to go in this haunted house against my will. I will forever be grateful to him for that. If he hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t had forced me, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know where we would be today. Everyday we have gotten closer and closer and I feel like we should take the next step of our lives. So Cassidy will you take this chance and spend the rest of our lives together?Ã¢â¬ Ace waited for a response. He hoped Cassidy like the ring he got her. Cassidy just stared at Ace for the longest time. Ã¢â¬Å"Ace, IÃ¢â¬â¢m so sorry.Ã¢â¬ Cassidy was in tears. Ã¢â¬Å"Why are you apologizing?Ã¢â¬ Ace had never been so confused. Ã¢â¬Å"Why are you crying?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Ace, I just feel like we are the complete opposite of that. I feel like we have grown farther and farther away. You say you love me but I just donÃ¢â¬â¢t love you any more. I was going to tell you today but I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t realize you were going to propose. IÃ¢â¬â¢m sorry, Ace. I hope you have a nice life and I really do hope you find someone worth that ring.Ã¢â¬ With that, Cassidy walked away. No one could believe it. Ã¢â¬Å"Ace, man, IÃ¢â¬â¢m so sorry. I can
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
His first language was Urdu, but Persian and Turkish were also spoken at home. He got his education in Persian and Arabic at a young age. When Ghalib was in his early teens, a newly converted Muslim tourist from Iran (Abdus Samad, originally named Hormuzd, a Zoroastrian) came to Agra. He stayed at Ghalibs home for 2 years. He was a highly educated individual and Ghalib learned Persian, Arabic, philosophy, and logic from him. Although Ghalib himself was far prouder of his poetic achievements in Persian, he is today more famous for his Urdu ghazals. Numerous elucidations of Ghalibs ghazal compilations have been written by Urdu scholars. The first such elucidation or Sharh was written by Ali Haider Nazm Tabatabai of Hyderabad during the rule of the last Nizam of Hyderabad. Before Ghalib, the ghazal was primarily an expression of anguished love; but Ghalib expressed philosophy, the travails and mysteries of life and wrote ghazals on many other subjects, vastly expanding the scope of the ghazal. We will write a custom essay sample on Ghalibiat or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This work is considered his paramount contribution to Urdu poetry and literature. In keeping with the conventions of the classical ghazal, in most of Ghalibs verses, the identity and the gender of the beloved is indeterminate. The critic/poet/writer Shamsur Rahman Faruqui explains that the convention of having the idea of a lover or beloved instead of an actual lover/beloved freed the poet-protagonist-lover from the demands of realism. Love poetry in Urdu from the last quarter of the seventeenth century onwards consists mostly of poems about love and not love poems in the Western sense of the term. The first complete English translation of Ghalibs ghazals was written by Sarfaraz K. Niazi and published by Rupa Co in India and Ferozsons in Pakistan. The title of this book is Love Sonnets of Ghalib and it contains complete Roman transliteration, explication and an extensive lexicon. His Letters Mirza Ghalib was a gifted letter writer. Not only Urdu poetry but the prose is also indebted to Mirza Ghalib. His letters gave foundation to easy and popular Urdu. Before Ghalib, letter writing in Urdu was highly ornamental. He made his letters talk by using words and sentences as if he were conversing with the reader. According to him Sau kos se ba-zaban-e-qalam baatein kiya karo aur hijr mein visaal ke maze liya karo (from hundred of miles talk with the tongue of the pen and enjoy the joy of meeting even when you are separated). His letters were very informal, some times he would just write the name of the person and start the letter. He himself was very humorous and also made his letter very interesting. He said Main koshish karta hoon keh koi aesi baat likhoon jo parhay khoosh ho jaaye (I want to write the lines that whoever reads those should enjoy it). When the third wife of one of his friends died, he wrote. Some scholar says that Ghalib would have the same place in Urdu literature if only on the basis of his letters. They have been translated into English by Ralph Russell, The Oxford Ghalib. Ghalib was a chronicler of this turbulent period. One by one, Ghalib saw the bazaars Ã¢â¬â Khas Bazaar, Urdu Bazaar, Kharam-ka Bazaar, disappear, whole mohallas (localities) and katras (lanes) vanish. The havelis (mansions) of his friends were razed to the ground. Ghalib wrote that Delhi had become a desert. Water was scarce. Delhi was now Ã¢â¬Å" a military campÃ¢â¬ . It was the end of the feudal elite to which Ghalib had belonged. He wrote: Ã¢â¬Å"An ocean of blood churns around me- Alas! Were these all! The future will show What more remains for me to seeÃ¢â¬ . His Pen Name His original Takhallus (pen-name) was Asad, drawn from his given name, Asadullah Khan. At some point early in his poetic career he also decided to adopt the Takhallus Ghalib (meaning all conquering, superior, most excellent). Popular legend has it that he changed his pen name to Ghalib when he came across this sher (couplet) by another poet who used the takhallus (pen name) Asad: The legend says that upon hearing this couplet, Ghalib ruefully exclaimed, whoever authored this couplet does indeed deserve the Lords rahmat (mercy) (for having composed such a deplorable specimen of Urdu poetry). If I use the takhallus Asad, then surely (people will mistake this couplet to be mine and) there will be much laanat (curse) on me! And, saying so, he changed his takhallus to Ghalib. However, this legend is little more than a figment of the legend-creators imagination. Extensive research performed by commentators and scholars of Ghalibs works, notably Imtiyaz Ali Arshi and Kalidas Gupta Raza, has succeeded in identifying the chronology of Ghalibs published work (sometimes down to the exact calendar day! ). Although the takhallus Asad appears more infrequently in Ghalibs work than Ghalib, it appears that he did use both his noms de plume interchangeably throughout his career and did not seem to prefer either one over the other. Mirza Ghalib and Sir Syed Ahmed Khan 1855, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan finished his highly scholarly, very well researched and illustrated edition of Abul FazlÃ¢â¬â¢s AiÃ¢â¬â¢n-e Akbari, itself an extraordinarily difficult book. Having finished the work to his satisfaction, and believing that Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib was a person who would appreciate his labours, Syed Ahmad approached the great Ghalib to write a taqriz (in the convention of the times, a laudatory foreword) for it. Ghalib obliged, but what he did produce was a short Persian poem castigating the AiÃ¢â¬â¢n-e Akbari, and by implication, the imperial, sumptuous, literate and learned Mughal culture of which it was a product. The least that could be said against it was that the book had little value even as an antique document. Ghalib practically reprimanded Syed Ahmad Khan for wasting his talents and time on dead things. Worse, he praised sky-high the Ã¢â¬Å"Sahibs of EnglandÃ¢â¬ who at that time held all the keys to all the aÃ¢â¬â¢ins in this world. This poem is often referred to but has never translated in English. Shamsur Rahman Faruqi wrote an English translation. The poem was unexpected, but it came at the time when Syed Ahmad KhanÃ¢â¬â¢s thought and feelings themselves were inclining toward change. Ghalib seemed to be acutely aware of a European[English]-sponsored change in world polity, especially Indian polity. Syed Ahmad might well have been piqued at GhalibÃ¢â¬â¢s admonitions, but he would also have realized that GhalibÃ¢â¬â¢s reading of the situation, though not nuanced enough, was basically accurate. Syed Ahmad Khan may also have felt that he, being better informed about the English and the outside world, should have himself seen the change that now seemed to be just round the corner. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan never again wrote a word in praise of the AiÃ¢â¬â¢n-e Akbari and in fact gave up taking active interest in history and archaeology, and became a social reformer. Personal Life Mirza was born in Kala Mahal in Agra. In the end of 18th century, his birthplace was converted into Indrabhan Girls Inter College. The birth room of Mirza Ghalib is preserved within the school. Around 1810, he was married to Umrao Begum, daughter of Nawab Ilahi Bakhsh Khan of Loharu (younger brother of the first Nawab of Loharu, Nawab Mirza Ahmad Baksh Khan, at the age of thirteen. He had seven children, none of whom survived (this pain has found its echo in some of Ghalibs ghazals). There are conflicting reports regarding his relationship with his wife. She was considered to be pious, conservative and God-fearing. Ghalib was proud of his reputation as a rake. He was once imprisoned for gambling and subsequently relished the affair with pride. In the Mughal court circles, he even acquired a reputation as a ladies man. Once, when someone praised the poetry of the pious Sheikh Sahbai in his presence, Ghalib immediately retorted: Ã¢â¬Å"How can Sahbai be a poet? He has never tasted wine, nor has he ever gambled; he has not been beaten with slippers by lovers, nor has he ever seen the inside of a jail. He died in Delhi on February 15, 1869. The house where he lived in Gali Qasim Jaan, Ballimaran, Chandni Chowk, in Old Delhi has now been turned into Ghalib Memorial and houses a permanent Ghalib exhibition. Religious Views Ghalib was a very liberal mystic who believed that the search for God within liberated the seeker from the narrowly Orthodox Islam, encouraging the devotee to look beyond the letter of the law to its narrow essence. His Sufi views and mysticism is greatly reflected in his poems and ghazals. As he once stated: The object of my worship lies beyond perceptions reach; For men who see, the Kaaba is a compass, nothing more. Like many other Urdu poets, Ghalib was capable of writing profoundly religious poetry, yet was skeptical about the literalist interpretation of the Islamic scriptures. On the Islamic view and claims of paradise, he once wrote in a letter to a friend: Ã¢â¬Å"In paradise it is true that I shall drink at dawn the pure wine mentioned in the Quran, but where in paradise are the long walks with intoxicated friends in the night, or the drunken crowds shouting merrily? Where shall I find there the intoxication of Monsoon clouds? Where there is no autumn, how can spring exist? If the beautiful houris are always there, where will be the sadness of separation and the joy of union? Where shall we find there a girl who flees away when we would kiss her? Ã¢â¬ He staunchly disdained the Orthodox Muslim Sheikhs of the Ulema, who in his poems always represent narrow-mindedness and hypocrisy: Ã¢â¬Å"The Sheikh hovers by the tavern door, but believe me, Ghalib, I am sure I saw him slip in As I departed. In another verse directed towards the Muslim maulavis (clerics), he criticized them for their ignorance and arrogant certitude: Look deeper, it is you alone who cannot hear the music of his secrets. In his letters, Ghalib frequently contrasted the narrow legalism of the Ulema with its pre-occupation with teaching the baniyas and the brats, and wallowing in the problems of menstruation and menstrual bleeding and real spirituality for which you had to study the works of the mystics and take into ones heart the essential truth of Gods reality and his expression in all things. Ghalib believed that if God laid within and could be reached less by ritual than by love, then he was as accessible to Hindus as to Muslims. As a testament to this, he would later playfully write in a letter that during a trip to Benares, he was half tempted to settle down there for good and that he wished he had renounced Islam, put a Hindu sectarian mark on his forehead, tied a sectarian thread around his waist and seated himself on the banks of the Ganges so that he could wash the contamination of his existence away from himself and like a drop be one with the river. During the anti-British Rebellion in Delhi on 5 October 1857, three weeks after the British troops had entered through Kashmiri Gate, some soldiers climbed into Ghalibs neighbourhood and hauled him off to Colonel Burn for questioning. He appeared in front of the colonel wearing a Turkish style headdress. The colonel, bemused at his appearance, inquired in broken Urdu, Well? You Muslim? , to which Ghalib replied, Half? The colonel asked, What does that mean? In response, Ghalib said, I drink wine, but I dont eat pork. Views on Hindustan In his poem Chirag-i-Dair (Temple lamps) which was composed during his trip to Benaras during the spring of 1827, Ghalib mused about the land of Hindustan (the Indian subcontinent) and how Qiyamah (Doomsday) has failed to arrive, in spite of the numerous conflicts plaguing it. Ã¢â¬Å"Said I one night to a pristine seer (Who knew the secrets of whirling time) Sir, you well perceive That goodness and faith, Fidelity and love Have all departed from this sorry land Father and son are at each others throat; Brother fights brother, Unity and federation are undermined Despite all these ominous signs, Why has not Doomsday come? Who holds the reins of the Final Catastrophe? The hoary old man of lucent ken Pointed towards Kashi and gently smiled The Architect, he said, is fond of this edifice Because of which there is color in life; He Would not like it to perish and fall. Contemporaries and Disciples Ghalibs closest rival was poet Zauq, tutor of Bahadur Shah Zafar II, the then emperor of India with his seat in Delhi. There are some amusing anecdotes of the competition between Ghalib and Zauq and exchange of jibes between them. However, there was mutual respect for each others talent. Both also admired and acknowledged the supremacy of Meer Taqi Meer, a towering figure of 18th century Urdu Poetry. Another poet Momin, whose ghazals had a distinctly lyrical flavour, was also a famous contemporary of Ghalib. Ghalib was not only a poet, he was also a prolific prose writer. His letters are a reflection of the political and social climate of the time. They also refer to many contemporaries like Mir Mehdi Majrooh, who himself was a good poet and Ghalibs life-long acquaintance.
Sunday, April 19, 2020
My birth was atypical. I was born at 25 weeks Ã¢â¬â three months before my due date. My mother calls me her Ã¢â¬Å"miracleÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"alphabet soupÃ¢â¬ baby, for all the three-letter acronyms for my various conditions. At birth I weighed 1 pound 10 ounces and was given a 50/50 chance of survival. When I did survive, I was expected to be severely disabled Ã¢â¬â both physically and cognitively. Slowly, I was taken off the ventilator as I learned to breathe for myself. In time, I learned to breastfeed without sucking milk into my lungs. I vaguely remember my three years of physical, occupational, developmental, and speech therapies. Neither I nor my mother remembers when I first learned how to Ã¢â¬ ¦ crawl? Walk? Speak? Only that it happened slowly, with two steps forward and one step back, for months. I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t read Ã¢â¬â at least not independently Ã¢â¬â for the first 10 years of my life. At 15, IÃ¢â¬â¢m almost ashamed to say I spell only adequately. We will write a custom essay sample on The Story of Me or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Despite all this, I learned to speak fluently, honed my motor skills, and learned to follow along both physically and mentally. Steadily, I was molding myself a normal girlhood. There are always those quick to remind me of my journey. When I started school, not everyone was accepting of my differences, and even some who set limits on my future potential. These assumptions deeply angered me. To think that almost strangers could see me and decide who I was, who I was going to be, based on what I had struggled through in the past. When I saw these same biased views cast on others, I felt obligated to protect them. Experiencing my struggles attuned me to the struggles of others. Throughout middle school, I was there for my bullied friends. I supported my friends who Ã¢â¬Å"came outÃ¢â¬ in school. And I was the voice against racism in my Girls on the Run team as we watched a group of young black men get racially profiled by police. Throughout my life, I have learned to covet my firm belief in this, above all else: Doing what you can, when and how you can, and doing it one step at a time makes a difference. All change happens as a series of steps Ã¢â¬â we reach our destination as we keep moving, going slowly, one foot at a time.
Sunday, March 15, 2020
Moringa Tea for Pregnant Women Free Online Research Papers A nutrient is a chemical that an organism needs to live and grow or a substance used in an organisms metabolism which must be taken in from its environment. It is known that good nutrition before pregnancy is important because of the amount of resources childbirth requires. The process of pre-pregnancy nutrition is a process of building up the immune system in preparation of pregnancy, and is known as being one of the major factors in determining the success rate of conceiving healthy children. Moringa products have been used to combat malnutrition, especially among infants and nursing mothers. Having a well balanced diet when you are pregnant is extremely important, as your diet is going to be directly related to the health of your fetus. Thus, Moringa supplementation is essential to get the right amounts of vitamins and minerals, as well as other nutrients. All the pregnant women today are more conscious about their health during gestation yet their nutritional intake becomes less as they are prone to cravings, sickness, and lack of energy, which makes preparing the right foods even harder. So the need for the extra nutrient is increasing which becomes more effective when the intake is in the form of natural supplement. Ozone Moringa tea refreshes along with the nutrient intake. The Moringa leaves are the most nutritious part of the Moringa tree. Enormous nutrient supplement helps in curing 300 different diseases, which increases the important of Moringa in our day to day life. Human body will reap the benefit only when the Vitamins, minerals, amino acids and the other nutrients are feed together. Moringa, with 90+ nutrients, is the best source to nourish the body with the essential nutrients. Dried Moringa leaves contain 4 times the Vitamin A in carrot vitamin A, vitamin A is essential for carrying out several bodily functions. It helps in improving vision and maintaining the nervous equilibrium. Well, as far as the intake of vitamin A is concerned, there is a need to ensure that youve had your recommended daily vitamin intake. Low maternal vitamin D levels during pregnancy may affect primary tooth calcification, leading to enamel defects, which are a risk factor for early-childhood tooth decay. Moringa contains17 times the calcium, pregnant woman is usually recommended 1000 milligram of calcium per day. Getting extra calcium during pregnancy boosts the babys health as well as her own. Calcium is vital for healthy bone and teeth formation and it is during pregnancy that the calcium needs are especially high for the healthy bone formation of the fetus. Take Moringa tea as a calcium supplement with meals. This helps make it a part of the normal routine and can aid absorption. During the last two trimesters of pregnancy and during breastfeeding, the body absorbs more calcium from food compared to not pregnant women. The baby needs this extra calcium to build healthy teeth and bones. If pregnant women dont get enough calcium in their diet during pregnancy, the calcium need for the baby will be taken from motherÃ¢â¬â¢s bones. Moringa contains15 times the potassium in Banana and 0.5 times the Vitamin C in Orange helps the gestation period free from malnutrition. Iron is one the important nutrient needed for the vulnerable groups Moringa with 25 times the Iron in Spinach prevent the deficiency syndrome. During pregnancy, the need for iron intake increases, as this mineral is essential for the bodys development. During pregnancy, the amount of blood in the body expands until you have almost 50 percent more than usual. And pregnant women need more iron to make more hemoglobin for all that additional blood. You also need extra iron for your growing baby and placenta. This exceptionally high nutritive value of the Moringa leaves has made the Ozone Moringa tea the most sought after Herbal tea worldwide. The health benefits of Ozone Moringa tea are legendary and it would not be hard to figure that it could be an important step for any potential mother to consider taking Ozone Moringa tea will surely act as a nutrient refresher as Moringa has been clinically proven to increase the production of breast milk whether it is consumed before or after the birth of a baby. Ozone Moringa tea is also known for its antioxidant properties. Grenera Nutrients is an integrated Moringa company that deals with planting of Moringa to the production of value added Moringa products. To have a variety in our nutritive drink Ozone Moringa tea provides different natural flavors incorporated in Moringa tea. Moringa Tea is the Nutritive refreshment which comes in the following flavors, Moringa original flavor, lemon flavor, strawberry flavor. For further details and purchase of Moringa tea visit www.ozonemoringatea.com and www.ozonetea.com Research Papers on Moringa Tea for Pregnant WomenPersonal Experience with Teen PregnancyMoral and Ethical Issues in Hiring New EmployeesGenetic EngineeringMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever ProductInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesIncorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in CapitalThe Spring and AutumnResearch Process Part OneThe Project Managment Office SystemOpen Architechture a white paper
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Topic is the Vietnam war. The main thrust of your comment will be from the view point of the aggressor. For example, if WWII - Essay Example Ho Chi Minh being a communist and an aggressor, he started guerilla violence in opposition to the Japanese with the sustainability of the United States of America. Towards the end of the war, the Japanese began promoting the Vietnamese patriotism and in the end approved the country's ostensible independence. According to Caputo, in the subsequent years the Japanese were defeated and the French returned to occupy their colony (287). Viet Minh singly accepted their access into Vietnam after being assured that the country was to be granted independence as part of an agreement with the French union. However, negotiations broke down between the two warring factions and in December 1946, the French soldiersÃ¢â¬â¢ surrounded the city of Haiphong and compulsorily got back the capital city Hanoi. These events started the clash between the Viet Minh and the French, which resulted in the Indochina War. The French soldiers were at last defeated at Dien Bien Phu in the year 1954 (Karnow 501). D owns further illustrates that in the beginning, the United States of America had no interest in Southeast Asia and Vietnam (211). Nevertheless, it became obvious that after the World War II the globe would be subjugated by the United States of America and its allies. The Soviet Union together with its allies was at the opposite side of the fence. This isolated the communist movements as a strategy for their success. These concerns were in the end converted into the principle of domino theory; the only remaining option of containing the communist tendencies is to close them within their borders. Tonsenic asserts that these trends continued dominating the United States foreign policy for a long time (165). In 1950, to stop the spread of communism, the U.S began supplying weapons to the French military in Vietnam and financially assisting the French troops. This was meant to dismantle the Viet Minh; these operations continued into the year 1956, when highly trained advisors provided co aching facilities to the army of the newly established Republic of South Vietnam. In spite of their excellent hard work, the army of the republic of Vietnam was poorly equipped and, therefore, ineffective throughout its existence. Karnow shows how the US continued supporting the Diem regime as it battled against Ho Chi MinhÃ¢â¬â¢s Marxist military aggressors in the north (624). In the year 1957, a small guerrilla pressure group began to come forward in the south, led by Viet MinhÃ¢â¬â¢s soldiers that had not come back from the north after the accords. In 1959, these groups fruitfully pressured HoÃ¢â¬â¢s administration into issuing an undisclosed resolution requesting for an equipped struggle in the south. Military personnel along with the Ho Chi Minh group began supplying weapons and troops into the south. The subsequent year, National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam began in earnest to carry on the fight (Downs 167-168). The situation continued to deteriorate in Sou th Vietnam, worsened by the corrupt regime of Diem government and the Viet Cong continued encroachment. In 1961, the Kennedy administration agreed to pump more aid, weapons, and additional financial support to the rebels. Washington had begun deliberations to force a government transformation in Saigon. In November 2, 1963, the Criminal Investigation Agency CIA of the US assisted the rebels to remove the Diem government from power. In order to mitigate the post coup d'etat chaos, President Kennedy enlarged the number of US soldiers in South Vietnam to
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
What social, political, and economic reasons should Puerto Rico be an Independent Nation - Term Paper Example An island with over ? of the population having difficulties with English will never fit in a country whose 97% of its population speaks fluent English. It would be easier for Puerto Rico be a sovereign country due to the cultural and linguistic concessions. A Spanish speaking island would not want to see its culture erode gradually the way Quebec has been torn from Canada (usefoundation.org 1). Being an overseas territory of the U.S, Puerto Rico has been exposed to penetration of American commodities, capital, customs, and laws. This is unequaled to any other Latin American state. Paradoxically, Puerto Ricans show strong cultural identity compared to other Caribbean people. There has been a widening rift between asserting a separate culture for the Islanders and the pushing for sovereignty. This has been manifested in music, beauty contests, sports among other areas. Puerto Rico is a representation of apparent paradox. It is stateless and has refused to assimilate into mainstream Ame rica. After over a hundred years of American occupation PuertoRico is Afro-Hispanic. Puerto Ricans consider it a postcolonial colony. They are people without a nation of their own since they live in a U.S territory that is not part of the U.S (Jorge Duany 425). Puerto RicoÃ¢â¬â¢s juridical definition is neither a sovereign republic nor a state. This creates contested, problematic, and ambiguous political status. It is a Paradox how this kind of in-between status strengthens rather instead of weakening Puerto Rican national identity. In opinion polls which have been conducted in Puerto Rico, over 60 percent of the population chooses Puerto Rico to be their nation, whereas about... There are many pros in Puerto Rican economics. Puerto Rico will be able to tax its own citizens and use the money to build and develop its infrastructure. There will be an open market for trading with the nations currently in alliance with United States. If it becomes a sovereign state, the island will enjoy low unemployment rates and a high per capita income. All the Puerto Ricans working in the U.S and other countries will come back to build their country. The relationship between Puerto Rico and the United States is directly responsible for the island having among the highest living standards of Caribbean, Central, and South America. However, Puerto Ricans who are American citizens by birth are still very far away from the same economic prosperity levels as the American citizens in the fifty states. The opportunity of achieving those standards is only if Puerto Ricans will govern themselves and improve the economic situation of their country
Friday, January 31, 2020
Cross-cultural interaction Essay Introduction Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The peripatetic traveler is the quintessential image of a globalised man. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s traveler is driven by the commercial forces of globalization and improved communications in the World which has seen travel and tourism grow as an industry. In the ancient and medieval ages however, when traveling was not that simple and safe, a few adventurists quite literally walked across the globe or what ever was known of it then. These were men as Benjamin of Tudela, Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta, who covered vast spaces compared to capacity of transportation in the era in which they lived and have left rich sources of history documented in their travels. There is much debate over the relevance of the jottings made by these travelers to modern day history. Sceptics tend to question the authenticity and objectiveness as well as ability to portray a correct picture of a cross cultural interaction which these travelers tend to pursue from their own perspective. Travel literature has substantial relevance in providing authentic information of cross cultural interaction, the cross cultural trends, a perception of cross cultural association between people and is proving to be a good source of authentic and endearing history today as it provides a perspective in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world through an understanding of medieval religion and cultures. Information of cross-cultural interaction Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The ancient and medieval times were denoted by lack of developed communications and modes of interaction for travel. There were also very limited historical recordings and what ever existed was at the behest of the ruling cliques, thereby making it biased. The historian today is left with primary records which are substantiated by such travelogues for a dispassionate view of cross cultural interaction. Thus travelogues do serve as important benchmark documents for historical purpose. This would be evident from recounting of travels through the Middle East during the medieval period in the writings of Benjamin of Tuleda, which tends to support the various historical happenings during the period by sources from both sides of the Islam and Christian divide. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Travelers as Benjamin who was a Jew could also benefit from interaction with those of his community who were spread across the region. Since the Jews were relatively unbiased during the period of the Crusades, their observations supplanted the travelers own perception providing further substance to the history of the region. While some may consider it as not the purest form of notation, in denoting cross cultural trends it could be considered more than appropriate and accurate. The excessive focus on the state of the Jews in BenjaminÃ¢â¬â¢s writing however to some extent indicates that the view of culture is primarily from an overly Semitic perspective of a Rabbi and authenticity is probably sacrificed but then a deeper reading would overcome this perception. BattutaÃ¢â¬â¢s writings span a much large cross cultural area extending from Jerusalem, Damascus, Syria, and East Africa while Marco PoloÃ¢â¬â¢s travelogues are also very genuine impressions of cross cultural trends. Each of the chapters he writes covers the various aspects of a particularly community that he has observed be it the cropping pattern, food habits and the monarchical way of governance. Marco very assiduously provides an overview of each facet in great detail. Perceptive Observers Providing Authenticity Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The intention of the travelers in their journey was multi focal. Thus some such as Benjamin did it for the purpose of seeking opportunities of trade or to find out about the state of personnel of his own community residing in various parts of the Middle East after being persecuted in their native lands. The meticulous recording of ethnographic details in his writing provides very insightful observations on cross cultural trends which highlights the capacity of its originator. Thus we find in BenjaminÃ¢â¬â¢s writings the details of how and when the Egyptian monarch travels, what are the proclivities of the people during various periods and the rivalries that existed even in those time between Cairo and Baghdad. It is also relevant to see that a person traveling beyond his immediate geographical and cultural setting would also be keen to obtain fresh insights into the lives of other communities. Thus observations of Marco Polo need to be taken note off with greater acceptance of the fidelity. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The meticulous logging of the timings in terms of a virtual daily log provides an excellent record of the period, the state of development, the manner in which communities lived and the state of their culture in vivid details. Ibn Battuta who was overwhelmed by the need to travel and thus sets out from his native place at the tender age of 22 years, is also a very keen observer and thus his recordings attain a high quality of relevance particularly in the cross cultural context. His descriptive writings on Cairo or Alexandria are very perceptive providing an innate understanding of the era. The description of events, the handling of camels, the holding of ceremonies all are very effectively portrayed by the traveler, giving a good understanding of the period. The meticulous recording of customs such as movement of women naked in some societies as in Mali and cannibalism are stark etchings on the history of a cross cultural trend. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Marco Polo again has providedÃ a wealth of material on cross cultural trends which denotes an excellent eye for detail and power of observation across a large expanse of area from Europe to China, Tibet to India and other areas. The burning of, Ã¢â¬Å"black stonesÃ¢â¬ , is perhaps a recorded intervention by Marco, which indicates the level and depth of his observations. MarcoÃ¢â¬â¢s observation are supplemented by a comparison between various cultures be it Chinese, Middle Eastern or Central Asian traditions of Bokhara. This provides a deep insight into cultural happenings of the era. Perspective of Modern Day Understanding Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Today Islam and the West appear to be undergoing a serious crisis, some view it as a clash of civilization matching. There is very limited understanding of each others religions, traditions, culture and ideological basis. This is truly surprising given the proliferation of modern knowledge. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It is the writings of travelers as Benjamin of Tudela who traversed the Middle East in the 12th Century which provides us a deeper understanding of the roots of this civilizational divide thereby enhancing our understanding of happenings in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s World. Being a Rabbi from Spain, Benjamin was relatively detached to enable a more objective assessment of the conflict which was occurring between Islam and Christianity in the medieval ages. His tour of the principal areas of the Middle East as well as Europe and Asia provided a fresh insight not just into the period but also the cross cultural linkages between these areas over the ages. The peace and prosperity in Egypt described so authentically by Benjamin provide an excellent insight in the functioning of well governed medieval states. The clash between Saladin and the Christians and the moves and counter moves of the period have been very vividly portrayed by Benjamin denoting how Islam was revived between the period of the Second and the Third Crusades. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Today when we see a similar up rise in Islam which is spearheaded not by the likes of Saladin, but terrorist leaders as Osama Bin Laden, BenjaminÃ¢â¬â¢s travels can provide a better counter cultural perspective. A similar understanding of the culture of the Middle East is provided in the writings of Ibn Battuta which can provide us a perspective from an Islamic travelerÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view in a different age over three centuries apart and covering some of the same areas. In each of the places that he visits Battuta makes mention of specifics which indicate a keen eye for detail. It is natural that a person with a good view of the details will remain also particular of the accuracy of his writings. Thus enhancing their historical value. The writings provide a cross cultural dimension of the transformation that has take place in these areas over these years. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã MarcoÃ¢â¬â¢s writings on Tibet are another issue which enables us to correlate between the state and relations of Tibet between the modern and the medieval periods. The fascination which the Chinese felt for Tibet even then is evident as Marco observes their repeated forays to gain hold of territory which they see as a great expanse with its many provinces, the customs of the people, their mastiffs and bamboo cropping are thus set to be matching. Conclusion Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Thus it would be seen that the travelogues of Marco Polo, Ibn Batttuta and Benjamin of Tudela are important documents as they provide authentic information of cross cultural interaction, denote cross cultural trends, enhance the perception of cross cultural association between people and prove good sources of authentic and endearing history, thereby providing better modern day understanding and background of medieval religion and cultures as in the Middle East. Ã Ã References Marco Polo and Rustichello of Pisa. 2004. The Travels of Marco Polo, Volume 1 and 2. E-text prepared by Charles Franks, Robert Connal, John Williams, and Project Gutenberg Distributed Proofreaders. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/10636/10636-8.txt (VOLUME I). http://www.gutenberg.org/files/12410/12410-8.txt (VOLUME II). (20 November 2006) Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa 1325-1354. Nd. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/1354-ibnbattuta.html (20 November 2006) The itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela. 1907. Philipp Feldheim, inc The house of the Jewish book. New York. gutenberg.org/files/14981/14981-h/14981-h.htm. (20 November 2006).
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Global Warming Global warming is an important factor because every one in the world but most importantly for me it will effect all of my relatives, as it is predicted that countries such as Bangladesh will be totally fooled due to global warming. Global warming interest me because the planet we live in is changing and the change that is happening will effect the way we live and how the future generations live. It has direct effects on the us and the relatives we have all over the, for ex This changes which will likely to alter the natural weather and climate patterns is largely because of human activities in the last century. Scientists believe that the Earth's surface temperature has risen by about 1 degree Fahrenheit in the past century. They also believe that most of the warming over the last 50 years is due to human activities. We have changed the amounts and the types of gases in the atmosphere. Gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. What causes global warming? Green house effect. Gases such as Carbon dioxide are normally used to keep the earths at a temperature average level. Which is comfortable for us and the environment. How does the greenhouse effect work? As shown on the diagram the suns heat passe through the atmosphere, some of this heat is absorbed by the earth, and some of it is reflected back by the earth and the atmosphere. The heat that is released by the earth is also passed into the atmosphere, and some is reflected back into the earth and the surrounding gas. This keeps the planets temperature at a comfortable level, which allows plants, an... ...Ã ¸ Buy energy-efficient appliances. Ã ¸ Replace your light bulbs with compact fluorescent bulbs. Ã ¸ Weatherise your home or apartment. Ã ¸ Choose renewable energy. Ã ¸ Plant more trees Ã ¸ Change farming practices Ã ¸ Political action WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s already being done? Ã ¸ More efficient cars have been made, which release less pollution. For example most cars are fitted with catalytic converters. Ã ¸ Cars can now use other forms of power, e.g. electricity, hydrogen and even cooking oil. Ã ¸ Energy saving homes. Ã ¸ Government laws stop big companies from producing too much pollution. Ã ¸ Energy saving products introduced, e.g. fridges, cookers, and lights. Ã ¸ More use of tidal, wind, solar and nuclear energy Ã ¸ To stop people using cars more taxes. And people are advised to use public transport.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Asian Americans only make up a small percent of the American population. Even more significant is that this percentage live mostly on the west and east coasts of mainland United States and Hawaii; leaving the rest of the American population to most likely get their exposures to Asians through television and movies. However the exposure they have receive throughout the history of cinematography has been hardly flattering. Throughout the course of history Asians in film have been portrayed as evil or the Ã¢â¬Å"yellow perilÃ¢â¬ as described by others. If Asians are not being classified as evil in this picture then they are most likely the comic relief, with their lack of coordination or grasp of the English language. With these common stereotypes in place, it gives a white American viewer a sense or need to destroy this Asian villain or superiority over the comedic character portrayed in the film. In the film Gung Ho filmed in the year 1986, the story is told of the plight of the people working in the region known as the Rust Belt. The group that is the focal point of this story is the relation between Asian men in an American town and the differences they share are played out in this movie. The stereotypes enlisted in this movie are both that of a villainous nature and a comedic relief with some of the characters. Throughout the film it is how the clever, white working class people of this hard working town have to overcome the maniacal working environment these Asian men have. Common stereotypes of the Asian man lay throughout the entire course of the movie, stereotypes that have been portrayed by the film industry of Asian men since its inception. The main stereotype in this movie is that Asian men only care about their jobs and their careers and little else. That the Asian man will go through great sacrifice to get to the top of the business that they work for. From beginning to end, many white families are portrayed in the movie showing that the American people have family values. Yet absent through the whole course of the picture is any Asian man with his family. This signifies that the Asian group does not have time, nor wants to make time to have a family life because they are trying to succeed in business. The Asian boss in the film wanted the results to his liking and little else, whether time with the family was missed or not. Hardly a glimpse of an Asian woman is seen during the movie while the American, and predominantly, white working community always spends time with the family and it is a valued part of their lives. Any slight mention of the Asian characters family was done in conversation without an on-screen appearance by the wife or children. Another stereotype depicted in the film was that every Asian character spoke flawed English. Not one single person through the film had a perfect grasp of the English language. This provides the comical relief in the film as any Asian man at any time could pronounce a word wrong or use the wrong word to the bemusement of the film watchers. The broken English that is used by the Asian characters in this film seem to heighten or display the fact that the Asian characters have visible flaws. The Americans never have to display such flaws, in fact the only part of the movie where an American attempts to spoke Japanese it is completely flawless, without hesitation or pause. A further stereotype that is used in this film is that Asian people make good managers, but are never good leaders. What this tells use is that while a person of Asian descent might know the best possible way to accomplish a goal they will never have the force or strong enough personality to get others to get the goal accomplished. The film has Asian men taking over an American plant and trying to incorporate work ethics that are highly successful over in Japan. Yet the white, working class person refused to adhere to such a strict regime and basically revolts to the ideas. This ultimately leads to the failure and disgrace of the Japanese workers who are unsuccessful in making the plant completely efficient. In the end it takes the will of one of the white workers to bring everyone together and incorporate a meld between the two cultures in order to get the job done and everything to turn out successful. Asian men are depicted as not being strong enough to take control of a situation, where as white American has the ability and will constantly use it to save the day for everyone involved in the situation. One finally stereotype that the film has is the simple fact that all people of Asian descent have some knowledge of the martial arts. Scenes in which martial arts were used were placed in the film seemingly at random, and just for the sole purpose of showing that the Asian character knew a form of martial arts. The film did not need to have any martial arts in it, as it was not the main focal point, or even any kind of focal point, in the film. Yet the makers of the film deemed it necessary to show, in fact, these Asian characters do know how to use martial arts to their advantage. The film portrays the Asian men in a negative light by showing that they do not have the will or the ability to take charge in a situation. This is completely different from the image of the American man who can take charge at any time, whether it is revolting against the Asian ideas or saving the day at the end of the film. The white American voice has no problem being heard and enforced, and its strong will might Ã¢â¬Å"rub offÃ¢â¬ on others in the end. They are portrayed almost as a type of savage or once again as the yellow peril as they were depicted years earlier. The seven-day work schedules and mandatory free overtime seems barbaric to the American workers, as well as the little amount of time spent with the families. Overall, the Asian men in this film seem to be a harsh taskmaster over their American working force. One of the consequences of this film is that it keeps up the stereotype of Asian Americans being the model minority. The Asian Americans have had this definition of themselves because of their strong cultural background, including strong work ethic, keeping them from becoming a problem minority, which many Americans saw the African American community as a problem. Asian AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s docile approach and lacking of any traits of masculinity were seen as positive traits and were widely regarded as no being a threat to the standards and norms White America had created for themselves. All this movie does is further portray that stereotype, as none of the Asian men in this film have any strong masculine qualities. They cannot take charge, they are easily intimidated, and they are never assertive with their beliefs and restrictions giving the impression to the movie viewers that Asian Americans are docile beings and Asian Americans are obstacles easily overcame. Overall, the object of this movie is to entertain the audience sitting at home watching it, laughing at the mishaps and situations that happen along the way. The question is, however, at whoÃ¢â¬â¢s expense does the laughter come? Perpetuating this stereotype only goes to further damage the way Asian Americans are seen by the American public. Also during the time the movie was being made, the yen and the dollar were in competition over which had more value. This movie in a subtle way suggests that American workers can overcome any adversity, while the Asian cast is lucky to have such determined Americans to help them out of their problems. The movie serves to inspire Americans by relying on a stereotype of Asians to show that Asian are weak and Americans are strong, and that they can overcome any challenge they rally behind.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Sunshine, youÃ¢â¬â¢re my baby and IÃ¢â¬â¢m your only mother. You must listen to the one taking care of you, but sheÃ¢â¬â¢s not your mama. Never forget, IÃ¢â¬â¢m the only mama who will love you forever and ever.Ã¢â¬ Ashley Rhodes CourterÃ¢â¬â¢s mom had told her. Ashley Rhodes-Courter was only three years old when she was separated from her mother. She spent the next nine years bouncing from one foster family to another. Her mother, Lorraine, was only twenty years old, and she was also too young to take responsibilities for her two children. However, Ashley grew up earning straight Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ in her classes; she won a world-wide Harry Potter essay contest in New York, as well as many others. She was born in South Carolina, and later was taken to her first foster family in Florida. The closest family member she was kept with was her step-brother Luke, who didnÃ¢â¬â¢t share the same father. Later on, when Ashley was eleven years old, she got a new step-sister, who did not share the same father as she and Luke. The book grew from an essay that Ashley wrote for a competition in which students were asked to write a moment in their lives which they learned something about themselves The most noteworthy achievement of the subject in the book, Three Little Words is when Ashley got a home after being in foster homes for a long period of time. She has spent at least ten years in foster care; which includes moving from one school to another, moving foster homes, she had seventy-three different